Citing your Sources in MLA Style

Your bibliography should really be alphabetized by writer name that is last. For works that do not need a writer, alphabetize by product title (omitting articles like "a" or "the"). Your bibliography also needs to be formatted making use of Hanging Indents.

Book or Report

The Bible. Authorized King James Version, Oxford UP, 1998.

Dorris, Michael, and Louise Erdrich. The Crown of Columbus. HarperCollins Publishers, 1999.

Fagih, Ahmed Ibrahim al-. The Singing of the Stars. Translated by Leila El Khalidi and Christopher Tingley. Short Arabic has: An Anthology, modified by Salma Khadra Jayyusi, Interlink Books, 2003, pp. 140-57.

Johnson, Roberta. Gender and Nation into the Spanish Modernist Novel. Vanderbilt UP, 2003.

Chapter in A guide

Copeland, Edward. “Money.” The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen, Edited by Copeland and Juliet McMaster, Cambridge UP, 1997, pp. 131-48.

Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Masque of the Red Death." The Complete Works of Edgar Allan Poe, modified by James A. Harrison, vol. 4, Thomas Y. Crowell, 1902, pp. 250-58. HathiTrust Digital Library, >

Journal Article

Piper, Andrew. “Rethinking the Print Object: Goethe therefore the Book of Everything.” PMLA, vol. 121, no. 1, Jan. 2006, pp. 124-38. JSTOR,

Newspaper Articles

Dwyer, Jim. “Yeats suits the Digital Age, saturated in Passionate Intensity.” Nyc instances, very early that is ed and Leisure sec., 20 July 2008, pp. 1+.

Book Reviews

Mackin, Joseph. Summary of The Pleasures of Reading in a day and time of Distraction, by Alan Jacomb. Nyc Journal of Books, 2 2011, 222 june.

Magazine Articles

Weintraub, Arlene, and Laura Cohen. “A Thousand-Year Plan for Nuclear Spend.” Company Week, 6 might 2002, pp. 94-96.

Observe that in this instance, the optional original date of book is included, in addition to several individuals into the Other Contributors category. If perhaps you were studying somebody linked to the work, that person might be placed in the writer place, like therefore: "Capra, Frank, director."

It’s a life that is wonderful. 1946. Directed by Frank Capra, Efficiency by James Stewart et that is al, 2001.

Television Episodes

Whether you choose to place the episode manager into the writer place or otherwise perhaps not will depend on the show as well as your utilization of the show in your writing. If the show features episodes with distinct tale lines or dramatic designs, the manager for every single episode might take on authorial value, otherwise the creator or manager for the show all together may be put in the writer position. If nobody takes authorial value for the work, spot the title associated with the episode in the very first position.

Bernstein, Adam manager. "Hazard Pay." Breaking Bad, season 5, episode 3, High Bridge Productions et al., 29 Jul 2012.

"Hush." Buffy the Vampire Slayer, developed by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Geller, period 4, episode 10, Mutant Enemy, 1999.

federal Government papers ( start to see the design manual at web page 104)

Cite them like books, guide chapters, website pages, etc, according to if the item you are citing is really a thing that is singlebook/report), a portion of the bigger thing (guide chapter), or web-based thing (website pages). Often you will have people that are specific as authors, nevertheless whenever this is not the truth, utilize the title for the organization or agency accountable for book.

Start the entry using the name associated with the government, followed by way of a comma plus the title associated with agency. By the end associated with entry for the publication that is congressional you'll optionally are the quantity and session of Congress, plus they type and number of the book. (The MLA Handbook particularly recommends following Chicago handbook of Style if you utilize numerous federal government magazines and require specific citation guidance.)

The uk, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food. Our Countryside, the Future: A Fair Contract for Rural England. Her Majesty's Stationery Workplace, 2000.

Un. Consequences of Rapid Population Development in Developing Nations. Taylor and Francis, 1991.

Usa, Congress, Home, Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. Al-Qaeda: The Many Faces of a Islamist Extremist Threat. National Printing Workplace, 2006. 109th Congress, second session, home Report 615.

Private Interviews

List the individual (last name first), accompanied by "Personal Interview" then the date regarding the meeting

Smith, Jane. Personal interview. 19 May 2014.

Interview or sound Commentary on a DVD

Keep in mind that into the example that is first name is in quotation markings because this is the name mcdougal offered it. Into the 2nd and 3rd examples the meeting had no provided title, so we present a quick description without quote marks alternatively.

Blanchett, Cate. "In Character with: Cate Blanchett." Notes for a Scandal, Directed by Richard Eyre, Fox Searchlight, 2006.

Olivier, Laurence. Interview by Kenneth Tynan. Richard III, Directed by Laurence Olivier, 2004, The Criterion Collection,

Verbinski, Gore and Johnny Depp. Audio Commentary. Pirates for the Caribbean: The Curse for the Ebony Pearl, Buena Vista home theatre, 2004.

Real Time Performances

Aristophanes. Directed by Barbara Karger and Michael Preston, 20 April 2006, Goodwin Theater, Austin Arts Center, Hartford.

Image or Artwork

It first hand, the Location is the physical location of the work if you view. If you see a reproduction, proceed with the standard rules for Containers.

In the event your image does not have any title, provide a brief description associated with the item into the name location. Usually do not add quotation markings or italicize this description.

DaVinci, Leonardo. Mona Lisa. 1503?, Louvre Museum, Paris.

DaVinci, Leonado. Mona Lisa. 1503?, Wikipedia,,_by_Leonardo_da_Vinci,_from_C2RMF_retouched.jpg.

Image of pet. 2016,

Work in a string

Clowes, Daniel. David Boring. Eightball, no. 19, Fantagraphics, 1998.

Twitter, Twitter, YouTube, etc

Each entry that is bibliographic MLA design is designed on the same maxims website builder tools discount, with little variation from book kind to book kind.

Each cited work has common elements placed within the order that is following the punctuation noted on this chart. Functions might be posted as solitary units, but the majority are held in "Containers" (like an essay or poem in a written book, or a bout of a television show, or articles in a newsprint). If details about a component is not available, miss out the element and move towards the next.

Here are a few examples that are useful

Utilizing the Fundamental Elements

Writers are recognized really broadly. You add a descriptive label like so: Pitt, Brad, performer if you are concentrating on the work of a particular actor in a movie, that actor is the Author, and. The first author followed by "et al. if you have 3 or more authors, list"

Titles of sources are italicized in the event that supply is a thing that is complete it self (a book, play, or film). Titles are enclosed in quote marks if the supply is part of a bigger posted thing (a poem in a group, an episode of a tv program, articles in a log). The title of a container is nearly always italicized for this reason. If you have no name, add a description that is brief of work but don't make use of italics or quotation markings.

Other Contributors could be noted if they're vital that you your work. Precede each title or number of names having a description such as "adapted by" or "edited by." In the event that individuals part must be in noun kind, achieve this followed with a comma like in "general editor, Edwin H. Cady." If the factor had been crucial that you the foundation yet not the container, put this factor information involving the Title associated with Source while the Title regarding the Container.

Variations are now and again crucial, such as "8th ed" for this form associated with MLA Handbook.

Numbers refer to volume and problem figures on publications and periodicals. Utilize "vol." and "no." for "volume" and "number."

Publisher identifies the company that made the source/container available to the general public. Host to publication isn't any longer detailed as of the 8th version, except in unique circumstances (see web page 51). Numerous writers which are similarly accountable are listed, separated by way of a forward slash. "University Press" is abbreviated to "UP." Publishers are maybe not detailed for the following types of sources:

  • periodicals (journals, publications, papers)
  • Works published by their authors or editors
  • Websites which have games fundamentally the identical to their writers' names
  • Those sites maybe perhaps not tangled up in creating the works it generates available ( like a solution like, or an archive like JSTOR). In the event that articles of this web web site are arranged as a whole that is unified as with YouTube or JSTOR), the website is detailed early in the day being a Container name.

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